II. Three Forms of Education

Based on the ideas described above, what kind of education is required? For the perfection of the individual, an education of heart is required; for the perfection of one’s family, an education of norm is required; and for the perfection of one’s dominion, an education of dominion is required, including a technical education, an intellectual education, and a physical education. Each of these forms of education will now be discussed in turn.

1. The Education of Heart

1.1. An Education for the Perfection of the Individual

An education which enables an individual to grow to the point where he/she resemble God’s perfection is an education of heart. To resemble God’s perfection is to resemble the unity of Sungsang and Hyungsang, which in human beings refers to the state in which one’s spirit mind and physical mind, as subject and object, engage in give and receive action centering on heart and are completely united. Therefore, in order for spirit mind and physical mind to become united, heart must be the center of their give and receive action. In order for the heart to become the center of the human spirit mind and physical mind, it is necessary for human beings to experience God’s heart and be united with it. Thus, an education of heart refers to the education through which one’s heart becomes united with God’s heart. Accordingly, an education of heart turns out to be an education for the perfection of the individual.

An education of heart refers to the education necessary to nurture children so as to become persons who love all people and all things in the same way that God loves all people and all things. In order for children to become such people, it is necessary to guide them in experiencing God’s heart. Then, how do children come to experience God’s heart? The first step is for them to have a clear understanding of God’s heart.

1.2. Forms of Expression of God’s Heart

God’s heart has been expressed in three ways during the process of creation and the dispensation of restoration. These three forms of God’s heart are His heart of hope, His heart of sorrow, and His heart of pain.

God’s Heart of Hope

God’s heart of hope is the heart God experienced during the time of creation. It refers to God’s joyful feelings, full of expectation and hope, in anticipation of begetting Adam and Eve, His first, most beloved children, to whom He could devote His unlimited love. When His heart of hope is finally fulfilled God will be filled with indescribable, limitless joy. In reality, God’s heart was filled with indescribable, incredible joy at the moment when Adam and Eve were actually born.

According to modern physics, the universe began to be formed about 15 billion years ago. From the perspective of Unification Thought, God began to create the universe at that time. What was everything for? It was all for the sake of creating Adam and Eve, His most beloved children. In the hope of seeing the moment when His children would be born, God spent much time creating the universe, in spite of the grueling character of the effort necessary in making a total investment. God, being filled with hope, however, did not feel the process of creating the universe as too long or too arduous, its length and difficulty notwithstanding.

We can realize through our own experiences that this is true. When we work for something joyful, we do not feel the work to be so grueling, no matter how many hardships are experienced. We even forget about the time, because we know that joy awaits us in the future. God’s expectation of joy was far greater than any kind of joy we may experience. Moreover, the joy God felt when Adam and Eve were actually born was so profound that it can not be easily compared to anything else.

God’s Heart of Sorrow

God’s heart of sorrow refers to the heart of God at the moment when Adam and Eve fell away from Him into the realm of death, which came to be under the control of Satan. It is analogous to the grieving heart of parents who lose their children. In the early days of the Unification Church, when speaking about the heart of God at that time, Rev. Sun Myung Moon would weep bitterly when he spoke about the fall of Adam and Eve.

God commenced the providence of restoration immediately after the fall of Adam and Eve. Ever since that time, God has been advancing His providence in hope of seeing the world of joy realized in the future when His will is finally accomplished. Yet, fallen people have been painfully indifferent to God’s providence, continually indulging in corruption and violence. Whenever God saw this, it brought profound grief to His heart. God, who has thus been advancing His providence in history, became a God of han, or deep mortification, as well as a God of unfathomable sorrow. Since His expectation and hope at the time of creation were so great, His sorrow and disappointment due to the human fall, was all the greater.

Even among human beings, when a child whom the parents dearly love is dying, they, the mother in particular, will feel unfathomable sadness and grieve deeply. Even when a child’s illness is very serious and the parents are told that the child will die, they will still try everything in their power to keep the child alive, by any means available. This is what the parental heart is like. So, when the child does eventually die, even though the parents knew it would happen, they still feel as though their hearts have been cut to pieces, and they are completely at a loss as to what to do. This is the heart of parents, especially the heart of a mother.

The sorrowful Heart of God at the time of the fall of Adam and Eve and the sorrowful Heart of God, who has had to watch Adam and Eve and their descendants suffering in the world under Satan’s dominion, which is like a prison, was too great to be compared with anything, even with the heart of human parents who have lost their children. Since the beginning of history, there has been no person who has ever grieved as much as God. This is one aspect of God’s Heart, as described by Rev. Moon.

Heart of Pain

God’s heart of pain refers to the bitter feelings God has experienced, having had to endure watching the central figures in His providential history being persecuted by Satan and his agents. God did not abandon fallen human beings, but continually sent prophets, saints and sages in order to bring them to life again. Nevertheless, people did not easily follow the teachings of God’s people but rather persecuted them, and sometimes even killed them. Every time God witnessed the saints and sages suffering from persecution, God would feel as though a nail was being driven into His chest, or His side was being pierced by a spear.

Those saints and sages were righteous men whom God sent to save human beings in the fallen world. Accordingly, God felt as if He Himself had received contempt, ridicule and persecution. This reveals another heart which God has endured in the course of the providence of restoration: the heart of pain.

1.3. Understanding God’s Heart

Through an education of heart, children should come to understand the three kinds of God’s heart as described above, especially the heart of God in the course of the providence of restoration. Therefore, I will introduce an understanding of God’s heart as it was during the courses of Adam’s family, Noah’s family, and Abraham’s family, as well as in Moses’ course and Jesus’ course. What follows is an introduction to God’s heart according to the teachings of faith of Rev. Moon.

God’s Heart as Experienced in Adam’s Family

When God created Adam and Eve, He was filled with boundless expectation, hope and joy, but when Adam and Eve fell away from Him, God’s grief knew no limit. Therefore, in order to save Adam’s family, God encouraged Cain and Abel, their children, to make offerings. God, of course, very much hoped that they would succeed in their offerings.

There may be those who suspect that, since God is omniscient and omnipotent, He might have known from the very beginning that Adam and Eve, and later Cain and Abel, would fail. If this were the case, then how could God have grieved in the true sense? This, however, is not a correct understanding. God was, of course, aware that there was a possibility of the human fall. Even so, since God is the God of heart and hope, His desire for human beings to succeed and not to fall was incomparably stronger than his fear that they might fall.

The same thing can be said of the offerings by Cain and Abel. Since God’s expectation for their offering was so great and His hope was so strong, He virtually ignored the possibility of their failure in the offering. Here we can distinguish a difference between heart and reason. God’s impulse of heart is so strong as to override reason.

At the time of Adam and Eve, and also at the time of Cain and Abel, God was a God of expectation and hope, who wished, absolutely, for nothing less than their complete success. Sadly, however, Adam and Eve, and also Cain and Abel, failed. Because of that, God’s sorrow and disappointment were incomparably intense. However, even at such sad moments as these, God could not simply break down in tears, losing His dignity, no matter how sorrowful He felt, because Satan was watching. If God had openly expressed His deep sorrow, He would have seemed to Satan as miserable, and lacking dignity and authority. That is why all God could do was leave, silently, with His head bowed and tragedy etched on his face, having to suppress the sorrow welling up from within. This is what Rev. Moon revealed about God’s heart in Adam’s family in the early days of his ministry.

God’s Heart as Experienced in Noah’s Family

After God left Adam’s family He walked a wilderness path for the long period of 1,600 years, looking for someone on earth with whom He could work. In all this time, no one welcomed God: everyone turned away from Him. There was not a single home where God could dwell, not a single square meter of land for Him to stand on, nor a single person whom He could relate to. God walked the lonely path of a miserable God, literally all alone in the world. In that condition, God finally found Noah. God’s joy at that moment was beyond comparison. Yet, due to the providential situation, God had to give Noah a very difficult direction, which was to build the ark. Noah accepted God’s direction and faithfully devoted himself in building the ark, for 120 long years, all the while suffering ridicule and contempt from the people.

Noah was not a “son of God.” He was established merely as a “servant of God” and a righteous man. Yet, God was so pleased to meet such a man as Noah that He walked the path of suffering in the position of a servant together with Noah.

However, after the flood, since Noah’s son Ham did not fulfill his portion of responsibility, Noah’s family, which had been saved from the flood, was invaded by Satan. When that happened, God again felt heart-breaking pain and sorrow. Deeply disheartened, God had to leave Noah’s family.

God’s Heart as Experienced in Abraham’s Family

Four hundred years later, God found Abraham and established him within the providence. The most serious time for Abraham in his providential course was when he was required to offer Isaac, his only son, whom he had begotten at the age of one hundred years (Gen. 21:5). God directed Abraham, who had failed in his symbolic offering of a dove and a pigeon, a ram and a goat, and a heifer, to offer Isaac as a sacrifice. Abraham’s heart at that point was unimaginably painful. He was at a loss as to whether he should keep Isaac alive, according to human ethics, or offer him, according to Heaven’s demand. In his heart, at that moment, Abraham would much rather have sacrificed himself than he would his son.

Nevertheless, he ultimately determined in his mind to sacrifice Isaac, in accordance with God’s order: he decided to follow Heaven’s direction, thus sacrificing his own heart. He wandered around Mount Moriah for three days. This three day period was a long, painful path for Abraham. During that time, God did not merely watch from afar; but having issued such a strict order to “sacrifice your own son,” God suffered along with Abraham, suffering even more as He watched Abraham’s suffering. When Abraham was about to sacrifice his beloved son, Issac with his sword, on Mount Moriah, God stopped his act of killing and said, “Now I know that you fear God” (Gen. 22:12).

Abraham’s heart to follow God’s will, his absolute faith, obedience, and loyalty established the condition of having killed Isaac, even though in fact he had not. That is why God was able to stop Abraham just before killing Isaac, and He provided him with a ram to offer as a burnt offering, instead of his son. “Now I know that you fear God” was an expression of His joy in seeing Abraham’s loyalty, being willing to offer even his son Isaac as a sacrifice, as well as His regret at Abraham’s failure in the earlier symbolic offering.

God’s Heart as Experienced in Moses’ Course

Moses was raised as a prince in the palace of the Pharaoh of Egypt. After he witnessed the suffering of his people, the Israelites, however, he decided to lead them to the land of Canaan according to the will of God. After many difficulties and setbacks, he led them out of Egypt and into the wilderness. The Israelites, however, revolted against him, their leader, each time they encountered difficulty. When Moses came down from Mount Sinai, after having completed forty days of fasting on the mountain and receiving from God the two tablets of stone, he found the Israelites worshipping a golden calf. Seeing such an act of faithlessness and blasphemy, Moses, in anger, dashed the tablets to the ground, thus smashing them into pieces. At that moment, God said, “Behold, it is a stiff-necked people; now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may burn hot against them and I may consume them” (Exod. 32:9-10).

How did Moses feel at that moment? Faced with God’s wrath to the extent that He even wanted to destroy the Israelites, Moses’ love and loyal heart for his people welled up within him at that moment. No matter how difficult it might be, Moses felt that he had to save his people by any means, even at the cost of his life. He appealed to God, saying, “Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against thy people” (Exod. 32:12). In the face of Moses’ fervent appeal, God refrained from destroying the Israelites.

After the Israelites had wandered in the wilderness for 40 years and finally arrived at a place called Kadesh Barnea, the Israelites complained to Moses yet again, saying, “There is nothing to eat here.” Out of frustration and anger at the Israelites, who were demonstrating utter faithlessness toward God, Moses struck the rock twice, thus going against God’s will. God later called Moses to the top of Mount Pisgah. Showing him the promised land of Canaan, which Moses had labored so hard to reach, God said, “You shall not go there, into the land which I give to the people of Israel” (Deut. 32:52). God had no choice but to speak this way to the 120-year-old Moses, who had twice-fasted for 40 days and had suffered greatly for 40 years in the wilderness, all in order to lead the Israelites. In fact, it was God’s desire to allow Moses, the leader of the Exodus, to enter the land of Canaan. However, due to Satan’s accusation (based on Moses’ having struck the rock twice), God had to take such an extreme measure, even unwillingly. In so addressing Moses, God felt deep sorrow and pain.

God’s Heart as Experienced in Jesus’ Course

As prophesied in the Old Testament (Isaiah 9:6), Jesus was born on earth as the Messiah. The entire world should have welcomed him wholeheartedly, but even from childhood he experienced heart-breaking rejection. His family rejected him; his religion (Judaism) rejected him; and his nation (Israel) rejected him. In the end, there was virtually no place wherein he could find any acceptance.

For 33 years, including his three years of public ministry, Jesus spent most of his days by himself, experiencing a life of loneliness. He expressed his lonely heart, saying, “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man has nowhere to lay his head” (Luke 9:58). When he looked at the temple at Jerusalem, he tearfully rebuked the Israelites, saying, “The days shall come upon you, when your enemies . . . will not leave one stone upon another in you; because you did not know the time of your visitation” (Luke 19:43-44).

As he walked along the shores of the Sea of Galilee in order to divert his mind from his loneliness, he once spoke with a woman of Samaria, who was not one of the chosen people (John 4:7-26). He expressed his mortified mind to the leaders of Judaism, saying, “Truly, I say to you, the tax collectors and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you” (Matt. 21:31). God walked with this lonely Jesus through such a lonely path.

In the end, when Jesus was crucified, how deep the grief in the heart of God as He watched His beloved son, Jesus, miserably dying! Deploring that he could not save Jesus from the cross, God could not even bear to watch, but had to turn His face away. Seeing Jesus on the cross, God suffered even more than Jesus himself.

1.4. Introducing God’s Heart

All of the above episodes are accounts described by Rev. Moon in his tearful sermons during the early days of his ministry. From him we come to know the heart of God in the courses of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Furthermore, behind the tribulations of the saints, sages, and righteous people of other religions and other nations, there was the heart of God constantly guiding them. Through an education of heart, teachers and parents should introduce the heart of God to children. In addition to talking to them about God’s heart, they can teach them through TV, radio, movies, videos, novels, plays, paintings, and various other means of communication.

1.5. Education of Heart through Practice

It is necessary not only to teach God’s Heart through words, but especially to manifest it directly through the practice of love. To do this, parents must first seriously love their children in the family. While parents raise their children by feeding, then clothing, then sheltering, then teaching them propriety, and so on, more importantly parents must always love their children with a warm and sincere heart. This is the true love of parents for their children. If parents consistently give such a quality of love to their children, the children will naturally come to sincerely respect their parents and practice filial piety. Furthermore, the children themselves would come to love each other. This is because God’s heart is conveyed through the parents’ practice of true love towards their children.

The same thing can be said of school education. Teachers must express the true love of God through their words and actions. Needless to say, teachers should competently and sincerely teach their students each subject. Not only that, but since school education is basically an extension of family education, teachers must guide their students wholeheartedly, and with a parental heart, regarding them as their own children.

God’s love should be conveyed through the teachers’ daily words and deeds, since the teachers’ every word and deed, private or public, become the material content for the students’ learning, and for the formation of their character. When students receive such a school education filled with love, their heart will be moved, and they will come to respect and willingly follow their teachers. Furthermore, they will want to practice true love in the same way that their teachers do. This is an education of heart through one’s practice in the family and in the school.

2. The Education of Norm

An Education for the Perfection of the Family

An education for the perfection of the family refers to the education necessary for the nurturing of a man and a woman; at the time of their marriage they should have fulfilled the conditions for becoming an original husband and wife by resembling the harmony of God’s Yang and Yin.

Since the human fall involved a failure to observe the norm (commandment of God), this education is, first of all, an education of norm designed to lead human beings in such a way that they observe God’s commandment. It is the education necessary to a man and a woman in order for them to gain the qualifications to become a principled husband and wife and form a family. A man must be fully equipped with the way of a husband; and a woman, with the way of a wife. The education of norm also includes learning the proper behavior expected of parents, the proper behavior expected of children, and the proper relationships necessary among brothers and sisters in the family.

Through this education of norm, the sanctity and mystery of the sexual relationship should be communicated with special care. A sexual relationship is something to be experienced only through marriage, and should never be violated at anytime, before or after marriage. According to the Bible, God told Adam and Eve, “of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat” (Gen. 2:17). This means that the sexual relationship is sacred, and must never be violated.

That commandment was intended not only for Adam and Eve, but for everyone, and it still maintains its validity today. This commandment is a supreme directive which will continue to be valid in the future as well. This supreme directive holds also that, after marriage, husband and wife can never, under any circumstances, have an illicit sexual relationship, that is, a sexual relationship with any person other than their spouse. Thus, the education of norm is, first of all, an education designed to nurture man and woman to the point of resembling God’s harmony of Yang and Yin, all the while observing the commandment of God. In other words, it is the education necessary for one to achieve the qualification to become a husband or a wife.

An Education for Becoming a Being of Reason-Law

Since human beings were created through Logos (reason-law), the education of norm, at the same time, refers to the education through which one becomes a being of reason-law, who lives according to the Way of Heaven. Education of norm, therefore, is also called education of reason-law. The Way of Heaven is the law permeating the universe. It refers to the law of give and receive action. Two kinds of laws derive from the Way of Heaven: the law of value and the law of nature. Of these two, the law of value form the norm. As there are both vertical order and horizontal order in the universe, so there are vertical order and horizontal order in the family. Accordingly, in the family there are vertical values and horizontal values which correspond to those two orders. In addition, there are individual values. The topic of values has already been treated in some detail in the chapter on “Axiology.”

The education of norm must be accompanied by an education of heart, since an education of norm per se necessarily has an obligatory nature, as can be seen in such normative directives as “You must not do this”; “You ought to do that”; and so forth. If such norms are not imbued with love, they can easily become excessively formal and legalistic. Therefore, an education of norm must be conducted in an atmosphere of love.

Love without norm is usually called blind love. Should parents or teachers express such love to children, they may become unreflective individuals, and end up with a despising heart. Parental love and the love of teachers must have some form of authority and dignity. In order to be of that nature, their love must be in accordance with Logos. In case there is too little love with too much emphasis on norms, the children will come to feel restricted and may revolt against their parents or teachers. Love should transcend norms, and should not be dominated by them. Even in the case where children may fail to obey norms once or twice, still they must be forgiven with warm love.

Love forgives and accepts everything, whereas a norm has the nature of strict regulation. Love is harmonious and round, whereas a norm is, so to speak, linear. Love and norms must be united. Since love is round and a norm is linear, a person in whom love and norm are united becomes a person of character in whom a circle and a straight line are united. In other words, a person of character refers to a person who, in a unified way, possesses the aspect of being the most harmonious, and at the same time possesses the aspect of being the strictest. A person with this kind of character can sometimes be very kind and at other times be very strict, and yet they can always assume the most appropriate attitude according to the time and place.

Therefore, an education of norm must be united with an education of heart. In other words, an education of norm must be given to children in a warm atmosphere of love both in the family and at school. If love becomes cool or cold, norms become formal and oppressive.

3. The Education of Dominion

An Education for the Perfection of the Nature of Dominion

An education of dominion refers to that education we receive which prepares us to manifest our dominion over the creation. In order to perfect one’s nature of dominion, one must first acquire knowledge about the objects over which one is to have dominion. Intellectual education, or the education of knowledge, is necessary for that purpose.

Next, one needs to be educated in those techniques through which one can express the creativity necessary to have dominion over objects. That purpose is served by technical education. Furthermore, in order for us to become the subjects of dominion, our physical strength must be developed. That purpose is realized through physical education. Thus, intellectual education, technical education, and physical education, together, are all included in the education of dominion.

Through an intellectual education we obtain the knowledge necessary for us to have dominion. Intellectual education comprises various fields including the natural sciences, politics, economics, social studies, cultural studies, and so on, according to the field of dominion. All of these are included in the concept of dominion over all things.

Since technology is a direct means of exercising dominion over all things, technical education serves as the core in the education of dominion. Finally, needless to say, physical education and the promotion of physical ability is important for a dominion over all things. In technical education and physical education as well, there are various specialized fields. For example, the education of art, particularly education in the performing arts, may be regarded as a kind of technical education.

In short, the purpose of an education of dominion is to become well-versed in the various methods of developing one’s creativity. Creativity is inborn; everyone is naturally endowed with a creative potentiality. An education of dominion, however, is necessary in order to actually mani-fest it.

Development of One’s Creativity and Formation of the Two-Stage Structure

The development of one’s creativity refers to the cultivation of one’s ability to form an inner four position foundation and to enhance one’s skill in forming an outer four position foundation, thus resembling God’s two-stage structure of creation.

The ability to form an inner four position foundation refers to one’s ability to form a logos, or to construct a plan. In order to be able to develop a logos, one must acquire a great deal of knowledge through intellectual education, and thus enhance the contents of the inner Hyungsang (ideas, concepts, etc.) qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The more knowledge (information) one obtains, the richer and deeper one’s ideas become. To form a logos means to develop a new idea. Technical innovations in industry are also developed through the repetitive creation of ever-new kinds of logos.

Following this, the cultivation of one’s ability to form the outer four position foundation refers to the enhancement of one’s ability to substantiate ideas through the use of tools and materials according to a certain plan―in other words the development of skills in conducting outer give and receive action.

Here, technical education is required. Of course, good physical condition is required as well. Therefore, improving one’s physical strength through physical education is also necessary.

One’s Education of Dominion must be Based on a Universal Education

An education of dominion must be carried out on the basis of, and in conjunction with, an education of heart and an education of norm. Only when based on heart (love) and norm can one’s intellectual, technical, and physical education become wholesome, and one’s creativity be fully manifested.

An education of heart and an education of norm constitute a “universal education” since they must be given universally to all people. On the other hand, an education of dominion should be given to people according to their abilities, interests, and desires. Some may major in natural science, others in literature, and still others in economics, and so forth. Thus, the field a person chooses varies depending on that person’s preference and aptitude. In this sense, an education of dominion becomes, in principle, an “individual education.”

It can be said that universal education and individual education are in the relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang. The reason is that an education of heart and of norm are a more spiritual education, that is, an education of the mind, whereas an education of dominion is a more material education since it is for exercising dominion over all things. Accordingly, a universal education (an education of heart and of norm) and an individual education (an education of dominion) must be carried out together in a relationship of subject and object. That is what is meant by a “balanced education” (see fig. 5.2).

Universality and Individuality in Education

Fig.5.2. Universality and Individuality in Education

In ancient Greece, in the Middle Ages, and in the Modern Age, there was always an effort to provide an education of love and an education of ethical and moral principles, even though the teachings provided were not perfect. Today, however, these kinds of education are being almost totally neglected. In many cases what can be called an “unbalanced education,” with an excessive emphasis on knowledge and technique, is being practiced. As a result, the healthy growth of human nature is being severely hampered. Therefore, a new theory of education must be advocated, whereby an education of true love and of ethics and morality can be conveyed on an entirely new level. It will be on this new basis that an intellectual and technical education can most appropriately be conducted. Only through such a balanced education can science and technology be guided in the proper direction. Then, such problems as pollution and the destruction of nature will naturally be solved. Moreover, through this kind of education, teachers will once again be able to regain their authority as teachers.

It should be re-emphasized here that the starting point of education lies in family education. School education is primarily an extension and development of family education. Accordingly, family education and school education must be closely united. Otherwise, it would be difficult for an education of heart and of norm, as universal education, to be carried out. Unity in education could hardly be expected if family education and school education were not united.