I. Content of the Original Image

The content of the Original Image refers to the attributes of God. Here, the content of the Divine Image―Sungsang and Hyungsang, Yang and Yin, and the Individual Images―and the content of the Divine Character― Heart, Logos, and Creativity―will be explained in detail.

1. Divine Image

Divine Image refers to the “form” attribute of God. We can not see God. Yet, He has definite forms. Strictly speaking, He has the potential to take definite forms, or He has a determinativeness. This is called Divine Image. Divine Image includes Sungsang and Hyungsang, Yang and Yin, and the Individual Images. First, I will explain Sungsang and Hyungsang.

1.1. Sungsang and Hyungsang

God has the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang as His attributes.
God’s Sungsang and Hyungsang are also called Original Sung-sang and Original Hyungsang in order to differentiate them from the sungsangs and Hyungsangs of all creation. The relationship between God and all things is that of Creator and created, that is, cause and effect. Therefore, Original Sungsang is the root cause of the intangible, functional aspect of all created beings, and Original Hyungsang is the root cause of the tangible, material aspect of creation.

The relationship between God and human beings is that of father and children. We were created in the image of God according to the principle of “creation in likeness, ”Original Sungsang corresponding to the minds of human beings, and Original Hyungsang corresponding to their bodies. Sungsang and Hyungsang are not separate, different attributes, but are harmonized as one in a reciprocal relationship. This is what is meant in the Divine Principle when it states that “God is the Subject in whom the dual characteristics of original internal nature [Original Sungsang] and original external form [Original Hyungsang] are in harmony” (Exposition of the Divine Principle, hereafter cited as DP, 19). Thus, God is a being with the dual characteristics of Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang harmoniously united.

From an ontological viewpoint, the concept of Divine Image is neither just spiritual nor just material: it can be described as a “Theory of Oneness” or “Unification Theory”. It can be said that spiritualism, in limited perspective, regards only Original Sungsang as the cause of the universe, whereas materialism regards only Original Hyungsang as the cause of the universe. Let us consider the content of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and explain them in more detail.

a) Sungsang (Original Sungsang)
Original Sungsang and Created Beings

God’s Sungsang corresponds to the mind of a human being. Therefore, Original Sungsang is the mind of God, and it is the root cause of the intangible, functional aspects of all created beings. Thus, God’s Sungsang is the root cause of the human mind, animal instinct, vegetable life, and mineral physicochemical character. In other words, God’s Sungsang is manifested in space and time on various levels, forming mineral physico-chemical character, vegetable life, animal instinct, and the human mind; all according to the principle of “creation in likeness.”

Even on the lowest level of the chain of being, God’s Sungsang is manifested in inorganic materials and minerals as law. In plants, God’s Sungsang manifests itself as life on a higher dimension (recently experiments have shown that plants have mental functions able to react to a human mind). In animals, God’s Sungsang manifests itself in a still higher form of mental function as instinct.

According to recent research by scholars, we can see that animals also have functions of intellect, emotion and will; they have consciousness as humans do. Yet, animals do not have the self-consciousness which humans have.

Inner Structure of the Original Sungsang

God’s Sungsang has the duality of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang. Inner Sungsang refers to the functional, subjective part, and Inner Hyungsang refers to the objective part. I will explain God’s Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang, taking a human being as an example, inasmuch as the human mind resembles that of God.

Inner Sungsang

The Inner Sungsang, the functional part within the Sungsang, refers to the faculties of intellect, emotion and will. Intellect, which is the faculty of cognition, consists of perception, understanding and reason; emotion is the faculty of feeling joy, anger, sadness and happiness; and will is the faculty of desiring, intentionality, or determining. These faculties all work actively on the Inner Hyungsang. Inner Sungsang is the subjective part within the Sungsang.

The perception faculty of the intellect refers to one’s ability to perceive external objects just as they are reflected on one’s five senses, or one’s ability to perceive intuitively; understanding refers to one’s ability to perceive logically following cause and effect; and reason refers to one’s ability to comprehend universal truths, and one’s capacity for conceptualization.

These three functions can be explained by taking as an example the process of Isaac Newton’s discovery of universal gravitation. First, Newton perceived as fact that an apple had fallen from an apple tree. Next, he reflected about the cause of the apple falling, and came to understand that the earth and the apple attracted each other. Finally, by studying, experimenting, and observing, he inferred that, in the universe, all material bodies with mass―aside from the earth and the apple―attract one another. In this process, the first stage in Newton’s cognition is perception, the second stage is understanding, and the third stage is reason, which can be called universal cognition.

Inner Hyungsang

Inner Hyungsang refers to the objective part within the Original Sungsang, and contains elements that have form. These important elements include ideas, concepts, laws, and mathematical principles.

i) Ideas: Ideas are concrete representations or images of individual created beings within God’s Sungsang. We human beings also have concrete pictures of individual created beings in the objective world within our minds as images, and those images are our ideas. Our ideas come from our experiences, but in God, the absolute being, ideas have existed within Him from the beginning.

ii) Concepts: A concept is an abstract and universal image, which arises from the common elements among a group of ideas. Common elements among the ideas of dog, chicken, cow, and pig include, for example, “movement” and “senses”. These are collected into an image, and we obtain an abstract image of “animal”, which is a concept. Concepts may be further differentiated as specific concepts and generic concepts.

iii) Laws (Principles): Laws or principles in the Inner Hyungsang are the original laws at the root of natural laws and norms (laws of value). In other words, it is in and through the numerous natural laws of nature and norms of human life that these original laws find their expression. It can be seen that, as the seed of a plant germinates, and its trunk and branches grow, and many leaves develop, these natural laws, and human norms as well, all derive from the original laws in God.

Divine Principle and Biblical Foundation for the Inner Hyungsang

I would like to explain about the foundation for the Inner Hyungsang as it can be found in the Divine Principle and in the Bible.

i) Inner Hyungsang: In the Divine Principle it is written, “The inner quality, though invisible, possesses a certain structure which is manifested visibly in the particular outer form. The inner quality is called internal nature, and the outer form or shape is called external form” (DP, 17). This passage means that prior to the visible forms, there exists a form within the Sungsang. This refers to the Inner Hyungsang.

ii) Ideas and Concepts: The Bible says, “So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them” (Gen. 1:27, Revised Standard Version) (hereafter Biblical quotations are from RSV). On each day, God said, “Let there be….” And it was so. And God saw that it was good (Gen. 1:3-31). This means that all things were created according to the ideas and concepts He had in His mind.

iii) Laws (Principles): In the Divine Principle it is written, “God made the world and carried out His providence according to the Principle” (DP, Korean version, 108), “[God is] the Author of the Principle” (DP, 43), “Although God created human beings based on the Principle, He governs us through love” (DP, 66). Thus God first established the Principle and then He created human beings and all things.

iv) Mathematical Principles: In the Divine Principle it is written, “The universe unfolds and manifests God’s original internal nature and original external form based on mathematical principles. Hence, we can infer that one aspect of God’s nature is mathematical” (DP, 41), and “God exists upon His Principle, which has a numerical aspect” (DP, 294). We can, therefore, understand that all of the elements that constitute the Inner Hyungsang have a reference in the Divine Principle and in the Bible.

So far, I have explained about the functional part (Inner Sungsang) and objective part (Inner Hyungsang) in God’s Original Sungsang through comparisons with a human mind. It is for the purpose of solving actual problems that I have explained God’s Original Sungsang in some detail. For example, when we say that intellect, emotion and will are centered on Heart, this means that the values of truth, beauty, and goodness―the values which correspond to intellect, emotion and will, respectively―are based on love. Inner Hyungsang is objective to Inner Sungsang consisting of intellect, emotion, and will; and at the same time, together with Original Hyungsang, it is the cause of the tangible aspects of all created beings. From this, it may be concluded that, in our actual life, we should give priority to a life of value (truth, goodness, and beauty) over a material life of food, clothing and shelter.

Next, I would like to explain about God’s Hyungsang in more detail.

b) Hyungsang (Original Hyungsang)
Original Hyungsang and Created Beings

In terms of a human being, God’s Hyungsang corresponds to the human body. It is the fundamental cause of the corporeal, material aspect of all created beings: the human body, the animal body, plant cells and tissues, and the atoms and molecules of minerals. In other words, God’s Hyungsang was manifested in different forms in time and space. This, again, reflects the principle of “creation in likeness.”

Thus, the fundamental cause of the corporeal aspect of all created beings is God’s Hyungsang, and it has two characters. One is the material element, and the other is the potential for a limitless number of forms. (The origin of the actual forms of all things exists in the Inner Hyungsang.)

Here, I can explain the potential for a limitless number of forms by taking the example of water. Water itself has no definite shape of its own. However, it takes various shapes according to its container. In a circular container, it appears as circular; in a rectangular container, it appears rectangular; and in a tall container, it appears columnar. It is because water itself is shapeless and has the potential for a limitless number of forms that accommodation in any shape is possible. In other words, water exists in countless shapes. In an analogous manner, God’s Hyungsang has no specific form of its own, and yet it possesses the nature of adjusting itself to any image or adapting itself to countless forms. Thus, the fundamental cause of the corporeal aspect of created beings has two characteristics: the material element and the potential for a limitless number of forms.

In human creative activities, visible materials (plaster or marble in the case of a sculpture, for example) are transformed in such a way as to conform to the design of the artist’s mind. In other words, it can be said that the creative activity is the transformation of materials according to the artist’s design. A similar thing can be said for God and His creation. God put the material elements of the Original Hyungsang, having the potential for a limitless number of forms, into the mold of the Inner Hyungsang in making all things with definite concrete forms. This was the manner of God’s creation.

Original Hyungsang and Science

The fundamental material element, which is the fundamental cause of the corporeal aspect of created beings, is also the fundamental cause of the “matter” that science has been pursuing. Let us look more closely at the fundamental material element as seen by science.

According to today’s science, the fundamental cause of matter is energy (physical energy) which gives rise to elementary particles: That energy has both particle and wave natures. However, since science only conducts its research within the parameters of the phenomenal, resultant world, the energy science is describing is not yet the fundamental and primary cause of matter. The Theory of the Original Image holds that the ultimate cause of matter lies in the Original Hyungsang. Thus, the Original Hyungsang is the stage just prior to the physical energy being described by science, and so it can be called “prior-stage energy” or simply “pre-energy.”

Original Hyungsang and Force

In God’s creation, two kinds of energy―”forming energy” and “acting energy”―are generated from the pre-energy in the Original Hyungsang through give and receive action (which will be explained in the next section “Structure of the Original Image”). Forming energy is that energy which becomes particles and creates material. On the other hand, acting energy is that energy which acts upon all things and is manifested as the force that causes give and receive action (i.e., centripetal force and centrifugal force) among all things. This causal force is called “Prime Force” in Unification Thought. When Prime Force acts horizontally as the acting force among all things, it is called “Universal Prime Force.”

Forming energy and acting energy both appear from the Original Hyungsang when it is engaged in give and receive action with the Original Sungsang. Heart, the root of love, is the base of give and receive action and therefore, the two energies are both the unity of physical energy and the force of love. Thus, the force of love is contained in Prime Force, and in Universal Prime Force as well. (Since his New Hope Banquet speech in May, 1975, Rev. Sun Myung Moon has often mentioned that the force of love is acting in Universal Prime Force.)

Difference and Homogeneity between Sungsang and Hyungsang

The question of whether Sungsang and Hyungsang are essentially heterogeneous or homogeneous, that is, the question concerning the difference between Sungsang and Hyungsang should be considered. What position does the “theory of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang” occupy among the ontologies of traditional philosophies? Is the “theory of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang” a monism or dualism? Is it materialistic or idealistic?

Here, monism refers either to monistic materialism, which asserts that the origin of the universe is solely matter, or to monistic spiritualism (idealism), which asserts that the origin of the universe is solely spirit. Marxist materialism is an example of the former, and Hegelian idealism is an example of the latter. Dualism holds that matter and spirit are separate entities, which gave rise to the universe. For example, Cartesian dualism recognizes the two distinct substances of thought (spirit) and extension (matter).

Given this, is the “theory of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang” in Unification Thought monistic or dualistic? Stating the question in different terms, are Sungsang and Hyungsang in the Original Image homogeneous or heterogeneous? If we say they are completely heterogeneous, God becomes a dualistic being, and so we must examine this issue closely. We must ask whether the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang are two heterogeneous elements, or if they are simply two expressions of one homogeneous element. Unification Thought holds that the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang are two forms of expression of one homogeneous element.

As an analogy we can say that steam and ice are the two different forms of expression of one entity, water (H2O). In water, the attraction and repulsion of molecules are balanced, but when it is heated, the repulsive force becomes predominant and water vaporizes into steam; when it is cooled, the attractive force becomes predominant and water turns into ice. Steam and ice are but two states of water; in other words, they are simply different expressions of the relative relationships between attraction and repulsion of water molecules. Therefore, they are not totally heterogeneous entities.

In the same way, the Sungsang and Hyungsang of God are the forms of expression of God’s absolute attribute. This absolute attribute refers to mind possessing energy, or on the other hand, to energy possessing mind. That is to say, energy and mind are not totally different elements, but are originally united as one. This absolute attribute manifests itself as Sungsang, the mind of God, and as Hyungsang, the body of God.

Sungsang consists primarily of mental elements, but there is some element of energy in it as well. In Sungsang, the mental element is predominant over the element of energy. Likewise, Hyungsang is made of energy, but there is some mental element included in it. Thus, Sungsang and Hyungsang are not totally heterogeneous elements. Both have the mental element and the element of energy in common.

In the created world, Sungsang and Hyungsang are manifested as the elements of spirit and matter. Yet, there are still some common elements between them. This can be understood from the following example. If an electrical impulse is applied to the nerve of a leg muscle removed from a frog, the muscle will contract. On the other hand, we can move the muscles of our hands and legs by our thinking (mind): Our thought stimulates our nerves and moves our muscles. This means that our mind has the same kind of energy as the physical electrical energy. The fact that there are people who can move another person’s body through hypnotism also indicates that there is some energy in the mind.

On the other hand, we can say that there is some sungsang element in energy. According to recent scientific understanding, elementary particles are formed in a vacuum state through the vibration of energy. When the particles are formed, however, the vibration of energy is not continuous, but occurs at graded levels, or states. Just as there are scales in music, there are graded states in the vibration of energy and, as a result, different types of elementary particles come into being at graded states. It is concluded that a sungsang aspect exists behind energy which determines the stages of the vibration of energy, in the same way that scales in music are determined by our mind.

Thus, there is some Hyungsang element in the sungsang, and likewise there is some sungsang element in the Hyungsang. In the Original Image, Sungsang and Hyungsang are united into one. They are at the root one and the same absolute attribute, from which are engendered the different sungsang and Hyungsang. When this absolute attribute is manifested in the created world through creation, it becomes two different elements. This is analogous to the drawing of two straight lines from a single point. One of the lines, in this case, corresponds to sungsang (or spirit), and the other corresponds to Hyungsang (or matter) (see fig. 1.1).

Difference and Homegeneity between Sungsang and Hyungsang from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Oneness

Fig.1.1. Difference and Homegeneity between Sungsang and Hyungsang from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Oneness

It is written in the Bible that one can understand the nature of God by observing created beings (Rom. 1:20). If we observe created beings, we will notice that they have the dual aspects of mind and body, of instinct and body, of life and body (which is made of cells and tissues), and so on. From this we can infer that God, who is the absolute causal being, is, likewise, of dual aspects. These are the dual characteristics of God. In God, however, the dual characteristics are essentially one. In reference to this point, the Divine Principle states that “God is the Subject in whom the dual characteristics of original internal nature [Original Sungsang] and original external form [Original Hyungsang] are in harmony” (DP, 19). We call this viewpoint “Unification Theory”. This is also called “Theory of Oneness”, referring to God’s absolute attribute.

For Aristotle (384-322 BC), substance consists of eidos (form) and hylē (matter). Eidos refers to the essence that makes a substance into what it is; hylē refers to the material that forms the substance. Aristotle’s eidos and hylē, which became two basic concepts in Western philosophy, correspond to sungsang and Hyungsang in Unification Thought. There are, however, fundamental differences between the two views, as follows.

According to Aristotle, when we trace eidos and hylē back to their ultimate origin, we arrive at “pure eidos” (or prime eidos) and “prime hylē”. Pure eidos, or God, is pure activity without any form; it is nothing but thinking itself. Thus, God was regarded as pure thinking, or the thinking of thinking. “Prime hylē“. however, was considered to be entirely independent of God. Hence, Aristotle’s ontology was dualistic and thus different from Unification Thought; it is also different from the Christian view that God is the Creator of all things.

Incorporating Aristotle’s thought into Christianity; Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) considered pure eidos, or the thinking of thinking, to be God. Just as Augustine (354-430) had done before him, Aquinas claimed that God created the world from nothing. God created everything, including hylē, and since no element of hylē existed within God, Aquinas had to affirm the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo (“creation out of nothing”). The doctrine that matter (energy) comes from nothing, however, is unacceptable to modern science, which holds that the universe is made of energy.

René Descartes (1596-1650) held that God, spirit, and matter are three different types of substance. He believed that God is the only real sub-stance. Spirit and matter are totally independent from each other, though each of them is dependent on God. Hence, Descartes proposed a dualism. As a result, it became difficult for him to explain how spirit and matter can interact with each other.

The Flemish philosopher A. Geulincx (1625-69), succeeded Descartes in developing the doctrine of dualism. He sought to solve the problem of how mind and body interact with each other by explaining that God mediates between the two. In other words, the occurrence of a mental state gives God the occasion to cause a physical action corresponding to it; and the occurrence of a physical state gives God the occasion to cause a mental state corresponding to it. This was the essence of occasionalism.10 This explanation, however, is unacceptable expediency, which no philosopher now takes seriously. The root of Descartes’ problem was that he conceived of spirit and matter as totally heterogeneous entities.

It is clear from the above discussion that the concepts of eidos (form) and hylē (matter), as well as spirit and matter, as held in Western thought, have presented a difficult impasse. These difficult problems have been resolved by the Unification Thought theory of sungsang and Hyungsang, namely, the theory that the Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang are the two forms of expression of one and the same essential element.

This concludes my explanation of “Sungsang and Hyungsang” of the Divine Image. Next, I would like to explain “Yang and Yin,” which is another aspect of the Divine Image.

1.2. Yang and Yin

Yang and Yin Are Also Dual Characteristics of God Yang and Yin are also dual characteristics of God. However, the dual characteristics of Yang and Yin are different in dimension from those of Sungsang and Hyungsang, which were previously dealt with. Sungsang and Hyungsang are God’s direct attributes, while Yang and Yin are God’s indirect attributes; in other words, Yang and Yin are the attributes of both Sungsang and Hyungsang, respectively. To put it another way, God’s Sungsang has Yang and Yin as its attributes, as does God’s Hyungsang.

The dual characteristics of Yang and Yin are completely harmonized, as are the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang. This is what the Divine Principle means in saying that “God, as the Subject partner, has dual characteristics of Yang and Yin in perfect harmony [Chung-hwa]” (DP, 18-19). The Korean term Chung-hwa, as used for Yang and Yin, as well as for Sungsang and Hyungsang, means harmony and unity. The dual characteristics were united into oneness before creation was designed. From this oneness, Yang and Yin attributes were separated at the time of creation. Looking at Yang and Yin from this perspective, I Ching, or the Book of Changes, is correct in saying that “The Great Ultimate, or T’aichi, generates the two primary elements of yin and yang.”

The concept of yang and yin in Unification Thought looks similar to that in the I Ching, but they are actually different. In the Oriental concept yang means light or brightness, while yin means shade or darkness. These basic meanings are extended, and used in various ways. For example, yang is used to refer to the sun, a mountain, heaven, day, hard, hot, high, and so on, while yin is used as referring to the moon, a valley, earth, night, soft, cold, low and so on.

However, in Unification Thought yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang. This is why sungsang and Hyungsang make up an individual or substance, while yang and yin only appear as the attributes of a substance. For example, the sun (an individual) is a union of sungsang and Hyungsang, and the brightness of the sun is yang. In the same way, the moon itself is an individual (substance) consisting of sungsang and Hyungsang, and the paleness of the moon is yin.

I would like to explain the concept of substance in Unification Thought. The concept of substance, as used in Unification Thought, originates in the Divine Principle. There, many terms with the word “substance” are used, such as “foundation of substance,” “substantial offering,” “substantial temple,” “substantial world,” “substantial embodiment,” “substantial object,” “substantial course” and so on, whereas the term “substance” traditionally refers to a created being, an individual, a human being with physical body, a material being, and so on.

Every created being, including human beings, is the united being of sungsang and Hyungsang. In other words, in a created being sungsang and Hyungsang are components of that individual (substance). Moreover, sungsang and Hyungsang themselves each have the character of substance. It is like saying that an automobile is a product (substance) as are each of its parts, such as the tires, the transmission, and so on. Thus, especially in human beings, both sungsang and Hyungsang are included in this general concept of substance in Unification Thought.

To be precise, Yang and Yin in the Original Image are called Original Yang and Original Yin, respectively (DP, 19).“ sungsang and Hyungsang” and “yang and yin” in a human being resemble the “Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang” and “Original Yang and Original Yin” in the Original Image. As explained above, in the created world sungsang and Hyungsang have the character of substance, while yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang; in other words, yang and yin are the attributes of an individual being which is the united being of sungsang and Hyungsang. The unity of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang and the dual characteristics of Yang and Yin in the Original Image is shown in fig. 1.2.

Dual Characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang and Yang and Yin in the Original Image

Fig.1.2. Dual Characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang and Yang and Yin in the Original Image

In order to know correctly the relationship between Sungsang and Hyungsang and the relationship between Yang and Yin in the Original Image, we need to study the relationship between the sungsang and Hyungsang of a person, and the relationship between yang and yin as his or her attributes. The relationship between sungsang and Hyungsang, and that between yang and yin, in human beings are shown in table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Yang and Yin as Attributes of Sungsang and Hyungsang(in a Human Being)

Yang

Yin

Sungsang

Intellect

Clarity, Good Memory
Distinctiveness, Wittiness

Vagueness, Forgetfulness
Unclear Ideas, Seriousness

Emotion

Pleasantness, Loudness, Joy
Excitement

Unpleasantness, Quietness
Sorrow, Composure

Will

Activeness,

Aggressiveness,
Creativeness,

Carefreeness

Passiveness, Tolerance
Conservativeness
Carefulness

Hyunsang

Protuberant Parts, Protrusions
Convex Parts, Front

Side

Sunken Parts, Orifices
Concave Parts, Back Side

As shown in the table, the faculties of intellect, emotion and will of the sungsang (mind) have the attributes of yang and yin. The yang aspects of the intellect are clarity, distinctiveness, and so on. The yin aspects of the intellect are vagueness, unclear ideas, and so on. The yang aspects of emotion are pleasantness, joy, and so on. The yin aspects of emotion are unpleasantness, sorrow, and so on. The yang aspects of will are activeness, creativeness and so on. And the yin aspects of will are passivity, conservativeness and so on. Needless to say, the Hyungsang (physical body) also has yang aspects (protuberant parts, protrusions) and yin aspects (sunken parts, orifices).

To clarify, what is explained in the above table applies only to human beings. God is the causal being centered on Heart. Prior to the creation, He has Yang and Yin, the attributes of Sungsang and Hyungsang, as potentials to realize harmonious interactions. Once creation starts, Yang and Yin as potentials become active and bring about harmonious changes to the faculties of intellect, emotion, and will, and also harmonious changes to Hyungsang.

1.2.1. Relationship between Yang and Yin, and Man and Woman

We will next examine the relationship between yang and yin with regard to man and woman. In the Orient, from ancient times, man and woman have been equated with yang and yin. In Unification Thought, however, man is considered as a “yang substantial being” and woman as a “yin substantial being.” The oriental philosophical view and the viewpoint of Unification Thought concerning man and woman seem to be, but are not, the same.

In Unification Thought, man is the “union of sungsang and Hyungsang with yang characteristics” and woman is the “union of sungsang and Hyungsang with yin characteristics.” Thus, man is described as a “yang substantial being” and woman as a “yin substantial being.”

It should be noted here that the meaning of yang when used in calling man a yang substantial being and the meaning of yin when used in calling woman a yin substantial being are not identical with the meanings of yang and yin as described in table 1.1. In other words, the yang and yin in sungsang and in Hyungsang, as described in table 1.1, are not related to man and woman. Let me explain this point more concretely.

First, let us consider the difference between yang and yin in the Hyungsang, in man and woman. In the Hyungsang (body), both man and woman have the yang protuberant parts and protrusions, and the yin sunken parts and orifices, but these characteristics are not the same in man and woman. Man has more defining protuberant parts than woman does, and woman has more defining sunken parts than man does. Also, there is a difference between man and woman in the average height, and in the average size of their hips. Thus, the difference between yang and yin in a man’s and in a woman’s Hyungsang is a quantitative one. In other words, man has more defining yang elements expressed while woman has more defining yin elements expressed.

Then, how about the sungsang aspect? The difference between yang and yin in a man’s and in a woman’s sungsang is not quantitative but qualitative (There is no quantitative difference in this respect between man and woman). For example, man and woman both possess clarity (yang) in the intellectual faculty of sungsang, but the character is different as between man and woman. Generally, clarity in man is expressed more in terms of comprehensive thinking, while clarity in woman is oriented more towards details. A similar thing can be said for other aspects of the intellect.

Looking at the emotional faculty, man’s sorrow (yin) tends to be of a painful kind, whereas woman’s sorrow tends to be of a grieving kind. As for the activeness (yang) of will, man’s activity generally gives an impression of hardness while woman’s activity gives a softer impression to others. Such differences between man and woman are characteristic. This can be summarized in table 1.2.

Table 1.2. Qualitative Differences of Yang and Yin between Man and Woman

Man

Woman

Yang

Intellect

Clarity,
Wittiness

Comprehensive,
Boldness

Attention to detail, minuteness

Will

Activeness

Hardness

Softness

Yin

Emotion

Sorrow

Painful sorrow

Grieving sorrow

Thus, between men and women there are characteristic differences between yang and yin in the sungsangs of both. Such differences can be likened to the differences found in vocal music. In the high vocal ranges there is a difference between tenor (male) and soprano (female), and in the low vocal ranges there is a difference between bass (male) and alto (female).

Given the above, we can understand that the yang and yin of the sungsang represent characteristic differences between man and woman, and so we express man’s yang and yin as masculine, and woman’s yang and yin as feminine. Thus, we have the concepts of “masculine yang and yin” and “feminine yang and yin.”

Since the differences between man and woman in terms of Hyungsang are quantitative, it is easily accepted that man is a yang substantial being and woman is a yin substantial being. In terms of sungsang, however, the differences between man and woman are characteristic. Then, why is man called a yang substantial being and woman a yin substantial being?

Concerning this point, it can be explained as follows: whether quantitative or qualitative, the difference in yang and yin between man and woman is the difference between subject and object. As will be explained below, the character of the relationship between subject and object is that of active and passive, initiating and responding, and so forth.

For example, in a yang aspect of the intellectual faculty, namely clarity, man’s comprehensiveness and woman’s orientation toward details are in the relationship of subject and object, and in a yin aspect of the emotional faculty, namely sorrow, the relationship between man’s painful sorrow and woman’s grieving sorrow is that of subject and object. Also, in a yang aspect of the volitional faculty, in other words, activeness, the relationship between man’s hardness and woman’s softness is that between subject and object. This concludes my explanation that the relationship between man and woman is that between yang and yin, and that man is called a yang substantial being and woman, a yin substantial being.

1.2.2. Solution of Actual Problems through Understanding that Yang and Yin Are the Attributes of Sungsang and Hyungsang

From the explanation above, it has been clarified that yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang. The reason why this is important is that this also becomes the standard for the solution of actual problems. Actual problems here refers to the problems between man and woman, such as degradation of sexual morality, disharmony between husband and wife, destruction of the family, and so on.

That yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang means that the relationship between ‘Sungsang and Hyungsang’ and ‘yang and yin’ is one of substance and attribute. Between substance and attribute, substance is more important, for it is the attribute’s foundation. Without substance attribute has no meaning. Hence, without sungsang and Hyungsang , yang and yin have no meaning. Thus, sungsang and Hyungsang are substances and so they are the foundations for yang and yin.

In human beings, the sungsang and Hyungsang task is to realize unity between mind and body, or between spirit mind and physical mind; in other words, to attain the perfection of character. The yang and yin task, likewise, is to unite man and woman (husband and wife). Here, there are two tasks to achieve: the perfection of one’s character and the unity between man and woman. According to the statement that “yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang” it is concluded that man and woman have to perfect their characters before they get married.

In the three great blessings (perfection of indivduality, perfection of the family, and the perfection of dominion) explained in the Divine Principle, the perfection of individuality (perfection of character) is placed prior to the perfection of the family, or the unity between husband and wife. The reason for this lies in the statement that “yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang.”

In Confucius’s Eight Articles of The Great Learning, it is written that “Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.” Here, the cultivation of the person is placed prior to the regulation of the family. This is because the author of The Great Learning understood this pattern, even if unconsciously.

Today, there are many social problems, including degradation of sexual morality, disharmony and destruction of the family, divorce, and so on, which are all connected to the relationship between man and woman. These problems occur because the perfection of character is not achieved prior to the perfection of the family. In other words, the “cultivation of the person” is not achieved before the “regulation of the family”.

In conclusion, the problem of man and woman, which is one of the most difficult of all actual problems today, can only be solved through the perfection of character in both man and woman before starting a family (before they get married); namely, through the cultivation of the individual prior to the regulation of the family. Thus, the statement that “yang and yin are the attributes of sungsang and Hyungsang” is another way of viewing the standard for the solution of actual problems.

1.3. Individual Image

1.3.1. What Is the Individual Image?

Sungsang and Hyungsang, and Yang and Yin, are the dual characteristics of God, and these two correlative attributes are universally manifested in every being in the created world. What is meant here is explained in the Bible: Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity [Divine Image and Divine Character] has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made (Rom. 1:20). Thus, since all things universally have sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, both sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin are called the “Universal Image.”

In addition to this, there are many kinds of minerals, plants and animals and all existing things have their unique individual natures. All heavenly bodies, whether fixed stars or planets, have their own characteristics. Especially in the case of human beings, each person has remarkably unique natures in his or her build, constitution, looks, character, disposition, and so on.

The origin of such individual characteristics of all things and human beings lies in the Inner Hyungsang within God’s Original Sungsang, and it is called the “Individual Image.” In other words, the Individual Images in God which are manifested in created beings are called the individual images of those created beings.

Since in human beings characteristics are different from person to person, the individual image of human beings is called the “personal individual image” and since all things (other than human beings) are different from species to species, the individual image of all things is called the “species individual image.” Thus, in human beings, the individual image refers to the characteristics of an individual, while the individual image of all things (animals, plants, and minerals) refers to the characteristics of a species, which is the specific difference on the lowest taxonomic level. The reason for differences in individual images is that human beings are created as the object partners of joy for God, and as His children, while all things are created as the object partners of joy for human beings.

1.3.2. Individual Image and Universal Image

At this point, the relationship between the individual image and the universal image of created beings can be explained. The individual image, which is the unique characteristic of an individual, does not exist independently of the universal image; actually, the individual image is the universal image which has been individualized.

For example, the particular look of a person is the individualization or particularization of the universal image of the human body, and the unique character of a person is the individualization or particularization of the universal image of the human mind. In human beings, the individual image is the universal image which is individualized for each individual person, and in other created beings, it is the universal image individualized for each species.

The reason that the individual image is the individualized universal image is that the Individual Images (in the Inner Hyungsang), which are the cause of the individualization of created beings, are working through the give and receive actions between Sungsang and Hyungsang, and between Yang and Yin in the Original Image.

The Universal Image of God is also called the “Original Universal Image,” and the Individual Image within the Inner Hyungsang of God is also called the “Original Individual Image.” The universal image and individual image of created beings derive from the Original Universal Image and the Original Individual Image, respectively.

1.3.3. Individual Image and Mutation

Let me now discuss the individual image and the gene. According to the theory of evolution, the appearance of the individual image of a living being, which is the specific difference, is understood as the appearance of a new character caused by mutation. Furthermore, the appearance of the individual image of a person is understood as having been caused by the mixing or combination of his or her parents’ DNA.

However, as understood from Unification Thought, the theory of evolution is merely a phenomenological understanding of the process of creation. In fact, the appearance of a new character in a living being, seemingly caused by mutation, is instead the creation of a new being with a new individual image through gene recombination; that is, the appearance of a new character by the mixing of the parents’ DNA is the creation of a new being with a new individual image achieved through the mixing of the hereditary information. To be precise, the creation of a new individual image in living beings or in human beings means that an Original Individual Image is given to a species or to a person.

1.3.4. Individual Image and the Environment

In order for an individual being, which has an individual image, to grow and develop, it must be continuously engaged in reciprocal relationships with its environment. In other words, an individual being changes, grows, and develops while being engaged in give and receive action with the environment. This is in accordance with the give and receive law that a new being or a change is caused by give and receive action.

As a matter of fact, the characteristic (individual image) of a being is, in principle, native, but some aspects of the individual image change through the influence of the environment. This is why some people misunderstand and think that characteristics are acquired a posteriori.

Also, there are different ways of change in the characteristics among people in the same environment. This means that the way one adjusts to the environment differs from person to person. This difference also derives from the individual image of a being. Such a character, which sometimes has the appearance of an a posteriori character, is the modification of an individual image, and it can be called a “transformed individual image.”

1.3.5. Preciousness of Human Individuality

The characteristics of created beings thus derive from the Individual Images in God, and therefore they are precious. Especially human individuality is more remarkable than others and is far more holy and precious. This is because a human being is the lord of creation, and is at the same time a united being of spirit self and physical self, wherein the spirit self lives eternally even after the death of the physical self. Human beings have been created to pursue the ideal of creation while practicing love through their individualities; therefore, human individualities are very precious and holy. Humanism also asserts the preciousness of human individuality, but so long as it does not recognize that such human individuality has come from God, it is difficult to overcome the materialistic view of human beings, which regards humans as animal-like beings. Thus, the theory of the Individual Image becomes the answer to another actual question, that is, why should human individuality be respected? This concludes my explanation of the Divine Image.

2. Divine Character

In addition to the aspect of form in God’s attributes, there is the aspect of function, nature, or ability, which is called “Divine Character.” Omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, supreme good, supreme truth, supreme beauty, righteousness, love, creatorship, logos, and so on, as taught in Christianity and Islam are attributes that belong to the Divine Character. Unification Thought also affirms these as belonging to the Divine Character.

However, such concepts, as given, are not so helpful in solving actual problems since they do not seem to be so related to the aspect of form (Divine Image), and they are not directly related to God’s creation. Instead, Unification Thought proposes Heart, Logos, and Creativity, which are directly related to the solution of actual problems, as constituting the Divine Character. Among these, Heart is the most important aspect of the Divine Character, never before clearly taught in any other school of thought. Let me explain these three aspects of the Divine Character and clarify how they can help us in solving actual problems.

2.1. Heart

2.1.1. What Is Heart?

Heart, or Shimjung, is the core of God’s Sungsang. It is the “emotional impulse to seek joy through love.” In order to offer a correct and clear understanding of the concept of Heart, I will explain it using the convenient case of human beings. Everybody seeks joy by their very nature. To be sure, there is no one who does not desire to be joyful. Everybody wants happiness, which is the same as seeking to be joyful. Although everybody always has the impulse to become joyful, it seems true that, until today, most people have been unable to obtain genuine and eternal joy. This is because people have tried to achieve happiness through the acquisition of money, power, and/or knowledge. But these can never bring true joy. Then, how can we obtain true joy? True joy can be obtained only through a life of true love. A life of true love means an altruistic life of service, a life lived for the sake of others, and a life lived by pleasing others with a warm heart.

2.1.2. Heart Is an Emotional Impulse

Let me explain the concept of emotional impulse. An emotional impulse is the irrepressible desire that wells up from within us: Normal desires might be repressed through one’s will, but emotional impulses can not be so repressed. We know, through our daily experiences, that it is difficult to repress our impulse to seek to be joyful. We want money, a high position, knowledge, and power, because we want to be joyful; children earnestly seek to learn everything, through their curiosity, because they want to be joyful; even criminals commit crimes according to their impulse to be joyful, but in this case, in the wrong direction.

Thus, it is not possible to repress the impulse to seek joy. One’s desire will be satisfied when it is fulfilled. However, for most people the desire to seek joy remains unfulfilled. This is because they do not realize that joy can only be obtained through love. The reason why joy can be obtained only through love is that the foundation of joy lies in God.

2.1.3. God Is the God of Heart

God possesses Heart, or the emotional impulse to seek joy through love, and such an impulse of God was far more irrepressible than that of human beings.

However incompletely, human beings have inherited the Heart of God according to the law of likeness. Accordingly, even though we are fallen and have lost true love, we still have the impulse to seek joy, and it is impossible to repress it.

In God, this emotional impulse to seek joy is grounded in the impulse to seek love, since true joy can not be obtained other than through true love. Thus, the impulse to seek love is stronger than the impulse to seek joy. The impulse to seek love is the desire one possesses wherein one can not help loving others. In other words, one can not help but seek partners of love.

The impulse to seek joy is triggered by this impulse of love: the impulse of love is primary, and the impulse of joy is secondary. Thus, love is an unconditional impulse, rather than the means for joy. The necessary result of love is joy. Thus, love and joy are two sides of a coin, and the impulse to seek joy is the impulse to seek love that has manifested.

Thus, God’s Heart can also be expressed as the “emotional impulse to love infinitely.” Love necessarily requires an object partner. Especially, the love of God is an irrepressible impulse and therefore, an object partner of love was absolutely necessary for God. Thus, creation was necessary, inevitable, and can never be considered as merely accidental.

2.1.4. Creation of the Universe and Heart

With Heart serving as the motive, God created human beings and all things as His object partners of love. Human beings were created as His direct object partners of love, and all things were created as His indirect object partners. The fact that all things are indirect object partners of God’s love means that all things were created to be direct object partners of love for human beings. Seen from the motive of creation, human beings and all things are object partners of God’s love, but seen from the result, human beings and all things are the object partners of God’s joy.

This theory of the creation of the universe having Heart as the motive (which is called the “Heart Motivation Theory”) is able to solve the philosophical problem of whether the creation theory or the generation theory is correct. In other words, the Heart Motivation Theory can resolve and bring an end to the controversy between the creation theory and the generation theory concerning the beginning of the universe. In generation theories, such as Plotinus’ emanation theory, Hegel’s theory of the self-development of the Absolute Spirit, Gamow’s theory of the Big Bang, and the Confucian theory of Heaven giving birth to all things, the negative aspects of crime, evil, and confusion in the world are considered to have occurred naturally and the way to solve these problems is closed. The creation theory presented here, on the other hand, holds that such negative aspects have a cause and are thus capable of being eliminated at their very root.

2.1.5. Heart and Culture

In Unification Thought, the relationship between Heart and culture is explained based on the proposition that “Heart is the core of God’s Sung-sang.” God’s Sungsang consists of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang, wherein the Inner Sungsang is more internal than Inner Hyungsang, and Heart is the core in the Inner Sungsang. Such relationships apply also to the sungsang of the original human being. This is illustrated in fig. 1.3.

Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang centered on Heart

Fig.1.3. Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang centered on Heart

This means that heart is the driving force behind human intellectual, emotional, and volitional activities. In other words, heart is the emotional impulse, which constantly stimulates the intellectual, emotional, and volitional faculties, resulting in intellectual, emotional, and volitional activities.

Such academic fields as philosophy and science are developed through human intellectual activity; artistic fields such as painting, music, sculpture and architecture are developed through emotional activity; and such normative fields as religion, ethics, morality and education are developed through volitional activity.

In a true human society consisting of original human beings, the motive force behind intellectual, emotional, and volitional activities is heart and love; therefore, all academic studies, artistic efforts, and normative behavior will be motivated by heart, and their aim will be the actualization of love. The totality of all academic fields, artistic fields, and normative fields, in other words, the totality of all intellectual, emotional and volitional activities constitutes culture. Thus, culture should originally be motivated by heart, and its aim is the actualization of love. Such a culture will last forever and, in Unification Thought, is called the “culture of heart,” the “culture of love,” or the “culture of harmony.”

Due to the fall of the first human ancestors, however, the cultures of humankind have become unprincipled, having various negative aspects, and such cultures have continued until today, all the while repeating the cycle of rising and falling. This is because heart, which should have been the core of the human sungsang, was blocked, and the impulse of heart was distorted into an impulse for egotism, or selfishness.

The best way to rectify present-day culture, which seems increasingly chaotic, is to eradicate egotism, and revitalize the impulse of heart in the core of the sungsang of human beings. Doing so can transform all the fields of culture so that they can be motivated by heart, and can pursue the actualization of love. In short, a new culture of heart and love can be established. The proposition that “Heart is the core of God’s Sungsang” thus becomes a standard for solving yet another problem: how to salvage culture from its present-day crisis.

2.1.6. Heart and Prime Force

Let me now explain about Heart and Prime Force. All things of the universe continue to receive some force from God even after their creation. Based on this force, created beings give and receive some force among themselves. The former is a vertical force, and the latter is a horizontal force. In Unification Thought, the former is called “Prime Force,” and the latter “Universal Prime Force.”

In fact, Prime Force itself is a new reality formed through the give and receive action within the Original Image, in other words, through the give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang. To be more precise, Prime Force is a new force formed through the give and receive action between the impulse of Heart within the Sungsang and the pre-energy within the Hyungsang. When Prime Force works upon all things, it becomes the horizontal Universal Prime Force, which causes give and receive actions between all things. Thus, Universal Prime Force is an extension of Prime Force.

The fact that Universal Prime Force is an extension of Prime Force, which is formed by the impulse of Heart and pre-energy, means that the force of love, as well as physical force (energy), is at work among all things in the universe.15 Therefore, for human beings to love each other is more in accordance with the Way of Heaven, which everybody should follow, than for people to believe they can do just as they like. Thus, this theory concerning “Heart and Prime Force” becomes yet another standard for solving actual problems. It offers answers to such questions as “Should we love others without fail?,” or “Is struggle or violence necessary at certain times?,” or “Should we love our enemies or attempt to defeat them?”

2.2. Logos

2.2.1. What Is Logos?

According to the Divine Principle, Logos means “Word” or “reason-law” (i.e., “rational principle”) (DP, 170). In the first chapter of the Gospel of John it is written that all things were created by the Word of God: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made” (John. 1:1-3).

In Unification Thought, Logos as “Word” means the thought, design, or plan of God, and Logos as “reason-law” means the unity of reason and law. Reason belongs to the intellectual faculty of the Inner Sungsang within the Original Sungsang. However, this reason in Logos, which created all things, is different from the capacity of reason in the human mind. Human reason, the character of which is freedom, is the faculty for conceptualization, and for pursuing universal truth. Reason in Logos, on the other hand, is merely a free intellectual faculty with the power of thought.

Law, which is the other aspect of Logos, is characterized solely by a mechanical and necessary nature, without any element of freedom or purpose. Law works with precision always and everywhere, transcending time and space. Just as the hour and minute hands of a watch, which is a mechanical device, keep time always and everywhere, law functions regularly and mechanically.

2.2.2. Logos Is Reason-Law

Logos as reason-law needs some explanation. Reason-law means the unity of reason and law. This concept is for the purpose of establishing another standard for solving actual problems. The problem at issue is that of how the collapse of values, which is causing great confusion in society today, can be stopped.

According to the Divine Principle, Logos is the object partner of God, and at the same time has dual characteristics (DP, 170-171). This means that Logos is a kind of created being, a new being which resembles the dual characteristics of God, and which can be regarded as similar to the union of Sungsang and Hyungsang.

Since Logos is the Word, or plan, of God, and since all things were created by and through it, Logos itself can not be a created being on the same level as all other beings. Logos, which is the object partner of God, and which resembles His dual characteristics, is a being resulting from His thinking. It is a comprehensive design, a blueprint formulated in the mind of God. When we make a building, we first make a detailed blueprint for that building. In the same way, when God created all things, He first made a comprehensive blueprint or plan for each created being, and this is Logos.

Though a blueprint is not yet a building or a product, it is a resultant created being. Therefore, Logos, which is a design or a blueprint, is a resultant being, a new being, and a created being. All things are created resembling the dual characteristics of God. Then, what dual characteristics of God does Logos, as a new being, resemble? It resembles the dual characteristics of Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang within the Original Sungsang. In other words, the unity between Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang centering on purpose forms the dual characteristics of Logos, in the same way that the unity between Original Sungsang and Original Hyungsang forms the dual characteristics of God (Divine Image).

As mentioned above, Logos is “reason-law” as well as “Word.” Then, what are the dual characteristics of Logos as reason-law? They are reason and law. The relationship between reason and law is the same as the relationship between the Inner Sungsang and Inner Hyungsang, which are subject and object; therefore, the relationship between reason and law is subject and object.

2.2.3. Logos Is the Union of Reason and Law

Since all things were created by Logos (reason-law), all created beings contain elements of reason and law. Accordingly, while all things exist and perform movements, these two elements work together. Yet, the lower the level of the created being, the more predominantly does the element of law operate; the higher the level of the created being, the more predominantly do we find the element of reason operating.

In minerals, which are the lowest level of created beings, it seems that only the element of law operates, and in human beings, who are the highest level of created beings, it seems to be only the rational element operating. In reality, however, law and reason operate in tandem in both cases.

Thus, freedom and necessity, purposefulness and mechanicalness operate in an integrated fashion in the existence and movement of all things. In other words, freedom functions in connection with necessity, and purposefulness operates together with mechanicalness. Until now, the relationship between freedom and necessity has often been understood as one of antinomy: freedom and necessity were regarded as opposite concepts in the same way that liberty and restraint might be understood to be in tension.

In Unification Thought, however, reason and law in Logos are seen not as being in a relationship of antinomy, but of unity. I can explain this point by using the example of a train running along a rail as an analogy. That a train should run on rails is a rule that must be observed by all means; once it derails, not only will the train be damaged, but it might also injure people and destroy buildings. Therefore, the train must run on its rails without fail and, in this way, a train obeys the law necessarily. Yet, it is the freedom of the locomotive engineer to make a train run fast or slow. It might seem that a train runs totally mechanically but, in reality, it operates under the united influences of freedom and necessity. Let me offer a second example. A person can drive a car when the traffic light is green, but must stop when the traffic light turns red. This is a traffic rule that everyone must necessarily obey. Yet, once the traffic light has become green, the driver can accelerate freely, as long as the car is running properly. Thus, freedom and necessity are united in driving a car as well.

Using the examples of a train and a car, I have explained that freedom and necessity operate in unison. We can thus understand that reason and law, as the dual characteristics of Logos, function not in a relationship of antinomy but in a relationship of unity.

Since Logos is the unity of reason and law, and since all things, from the astronomical bodies in the macroscopic world to atoms and sub-atomic particles in the microscopic world, are created through Logos, reason and law operate unitedly in all of them without exception. In this way all things exist, move, and develop through the unity of reason and law, freedom and necessity, or purposefulness and mechanicalness.

This idea is in full agreement with the current views of science. Consider, for example, the Backster Effect. This phenomenon has shown, through an examination of the reaction of a plant, to the leaves of which the electrodes of a lie detector have been attached, that even a plant has a kind of consciousness. There is also the theory of complex relativity, proposed by Jean E. Charon (1920-), which claims that even electrons and photons are equipped with mechanisms of memory and thinking. That a plant possesses consciousness and that an electron has a mechanism of thinking support the notion that reason and law, and freedom and necessity, are operating together in all created beings.

2.2.4. Logos, Freedom, and License

Let me now clarify the true meaning of freedom, and the problem of license, as related to Logos. Through a correct understanding of freedom and license significant actual problems can be solved. Today, various acts of delinquency that serve to destroy the social order are carried out in the name of freedom. What is an effective countermeasure against such acts that cause social confusion? In order to solve this problem, let us first clarify the true meaning of freedom, and the nature of license.

In the Divine Principle, it is written that “There is no freedom outside the Principle,” that “There is no freedom without responsibility,” and that “There is no freedom without accomplishment” (DP, 74). In other words, there are three conditions for freedom: “to be within the Principle,” then “to bear responsibility,” and then “to make accomplishment.” Here, “to be within the Principle” means that one should not deviate from the Principle or law; “to bear responsibility” means to complete one’s portion of responsibility; and “to make accomplishment” means to complete the purpose of creation and bring about good results. The completion of one’s portion of responsibility, the completion of the purpose of creation, and bringing about good results are all principled acts in accordance with the Way of Heaven, or laws (norms).

These three requisites for freedom―”to be within the Principle,” then “to bear responsibility,” and finally “to make accomplishment”―can be expressed in a word, as being/acting “within the Principle.” It can be concluded, therefore, that true freedom can only be achieved in full conjunction with law and necessity. Law refers here to the laws of value (norms) operating in human life as well as to the natural laws operating in nature. Norms, or values, are sustained only in the context of order. Therefore, in the original world, to disregard norms, or to destroy order, can never result in freedom.

Freedom in its strict sense means freedom of choice, and one’s choice is determined through reason. Consequently, freedom starts with rational choice and then it is carried through into practice. The motivating power, that which expresses freedom in practice is one’s free will, and when freedom is exercised together with one’s free will, the result is free action. These are the concepts of free will and free action as found in the Divine Principle (DP, 74). Thus, rational choice, the exercise of free will, and the resultant free action should never be done merely arbitrarily. They should only be carried out within the parameters of the Principle or law (laws of value), as necessary. In this way, freedom is the freedom of reason, and reason always operates within law. In other words, originally, true freedom can be realized only within reason-law, in other words, within Logos, and it can not be realized apart from the Logos. It is sometimes argued that laws tend to restrict freedom, but that is a misunderstanding arising from one’s ignorance of the original meaning of law and freedom.

Originally, law and freedom were intended to function for the realization of love. That is to say, law and freedom only truly operate within the context of true love. True love is the source of our life and joy. Accordingly, in the original world, through observing laws one can joyfully enjoy freedom. This is because Logos is based on Heart.

Arbitrary thinking and arbitrary action which are apart from Logos are exercised through a false freedom, which is license. Freedom and license are absolutely different concepts. Freedom is an affirming and constructive concept that brings about good results, whereas license is a destructive concept bringing about evil results. Freedom and license must be strictly distinguished, but in reality they are often confused and misunderstood. This is because people do not have a proper understanding of Logos, which is the true foundation for freedom. Once one understands the correct meaning of Logos, and knows the true meaning of freedom, then all kinds of license masquerading under the name of freedom, can be abolished; it will finally become possible to end social confusion. Thus, the theory of Logos, again, becomes a standard for solving actual problems.

2.2.5. Logos, Heart, and Love

Here, the relationship between Logos, Heart, and love will be explained. As already defined, Logos is the Word or plan and at the same time it is reason-law. Word and reason-law are not two different things. Reason-law is included within the Word, as an internal part. The relationship can be compared to physiology being included within biology, as a subfield within it. In other words, physiology is one field of biology, which consists of the various fields of anatomy, biochemistry, ecology, embryology, physiology, and so on. In the same way, reason-law is a part of the Word, wherein limitless amounts and kinds of knowledge about God’s creation are included. Reason-law, which is a part of the Word, is that part which deals specifically with the interactions and relationships among all things. Thus, Word and reason-law are not different things. Furthermore, Heart is the basis for both Word and reason-law. In the same way that the investigation of organisms is common to all the fields of biology, God’s Heart is the common foundation for both Word and reason-law. Heart is the emotional impulse to seek joy through love. The fact that Heart is the basis for both the Word and for reason-law in God’s creation means that all phenomena, including existence, change, motion, and the development of created beings, are supported and permeated by the impulse of love.

Accordingly, whether we are concerned with natural law or ethical law, love is necessarily operating, and must be operating, behind law. Generally, natural law is understood as solely physicochemical law, but this is an incomplete understanding; love is operating, without fail, behind all law, although the level of love may be different among different creatures. Clearly, love is operating in the ethical laws (norms) of human beings.

In my earlier explanation of Logos, I primarily discussed it in the sense of its being reason and law, or freedom and necessity. Yet, in the actual operation of reason-law, love is significantly more important than reason or law, and love often stands superior to them.

A life of reason-law, but without love, easily becomes like that of a cold and formal barracks, in which solders live according to strict rules, and this way of life easily withers like an immature ear of wheat. Only in a life of reason-law filled with warm love, can the peace of a spring garden, in which all kinds of flowers bloom, and bees and butterflies fly, realistically come about. This criterion of a life of warm love becomes another standard in solving actual problems. The question is: what is the true guideline for bringing peace into a family and society? The answer can only be the theory of Logos based on Heart.

2.3. Creativity

2.3.1. What Is Creativity?

Generally, creativity is defined as “the ability to create new things.” In the Divine Principle, God’s creativity is expressed as “God’s creative nature” and “God’s power of creation” (DP, 43).

Yet, we do not have an accurate understanding of God’s creation with just these concepts alone. As already explained, the purpose in understanding the attributes of God is to arrive at a fundamental solution to actual problems. Accordingly, all our explanations about God must be as accurate and concrete and concise as possible. Our understanding of God’s creativity is no exception. It is difficult to understand God’s creativity accurately with mere commonsense explanations. Hence, the characteristics and requisites of God’s creativity must be clarified.

God’s creation was neither accidental nor spontaneous. It was acco-mplished based on an irrepressible, inevitable motive with a clear and purposeful intention. This may be called the theory of creation motivated by Heart or, simply, the Heart Motivation Theory.

In creation, the inner and outer four position foundations, and give and receive actions, which will be explained fully in the next section, “Structure of the Original Image,” are all necessarily formed centering on the purpose of creation. Consequently, God’s creativity can be described as “the ability to form the inner and outer four position foundations centering on purpose.” In the case of human creative activity, such as the production of commodities, the formation of the inner four position foundation corresponds to planning, the development of an idea, making a blueprint, and so on; the formation of the outer four position foundation corresponds to the actual production of the commodity through the use of machines and appropriate materials, according to the blueprint.

In God, the formation of the inner four position foundation is the formation of Logos centered on purpose, and the formation of the outer four position foundation is the creation of all things, through the give and receive action between Sungsang and Hyungsang centering on purpose. Thus, God’s creativity is the ability to form such inner and outer four position foundations, namely, the ability to form Logos and to create all things. The reason we seek to explain God’s creativity in such detail is to establish a standard for the fundamental solution of the various actual problems that are related to creative activity, including such things as pollution, the reduction or abolition of armaments, how scientific and artistic endeavors should be carried out, and so on.

2.3.2. Human Creativity

Let me now explain about human creativity. Human beings have the ability to produce new things, in other words, they are creative. Human creativity is what God gave to human beings in accordance with the law of resemblance. Originally, human beings should have inherited God’s creativity (DP, 43, 67, 167), and human creativity should have resembled God’s creativity completely. Due to the fall, however, human beings have only incompletely inherited God’s creativity.

It is because God was to bequeath His creativity to human beings (DP, 78, 167) that human creativity was to resemble God’s creativity. Then, why did God want to give His creativity to human beings? It was in order to bless human beings as the lords of creation (DP, 78), and to give to them the qualification to enjoy dominion over all things (DP, 67, 78). Here, dominion over all things refers to one’s treating all things as one wishes, while yet always regarding them as being precious. In other words, treating all things with a heart of love is truly one’s dominion over all things, and all fields of human life are included. For example, economy, industry, art and so on, all are included in the concept of dominion over all things. Since human beings on earth live in their physical bodies, they are dealing with matter in all fields of their lives. Therefore, it is not too much to say that one’s entire human life is a life of dominion over all things. Dominion over all things, as originally intended, is possible only when human beings fully inherit God’s creativity. Original dominion means to utilize things creatively, with a heart of love, in various activities, including cultivation, manufacturing, production, reforming, construction, invention, safekeeping, transportation, storage, artistic activity, and so on. Religious and political activities are also included, since material things and economic concerns are indispensable in these activities as well. New creative ideas, as well as love, are requisites for human beings to deal with things. In other words, God’s creativity is required for the original dominion of things by human beings.

If human beings had not fallen their creativity would have completely resembled God’s, and they would have been able to exercise their original dominion over all things. However, due to the fall of the first human ancestors, human beings lost their original nature. Hence, human creativity became distorted, and their dominion over all things became imperfect and non- principled.

Here, the following question may arise: “If God created human beings according to the law of likeness, they would have received original creativity from the very beginning, at their birth, and, accordingly, regardless of the fall, would that creativity not have remained until today? In fact, numerous scientists and technicians are today displaying a very high level of creative ability.” How might we answer this question?

2.3.3. Creation in Likeness

I would like to explain specifically how creation in likeness applies in the world of time and space, since God’s creation means that each created being has appeared in the world of time and space. After God’s creation was carried out in His mind, and the Logos (or plan) was formed, transcending time and space, each created being then appeared in the world of time and space, starting from a small and immature, young stage, then passing through the process of growth, and finally reaching its full maturity.

After it has thus grown and completed itself, a created being completely resembles God’s plan and His attributes. This period of time prior to its completion is its immature stage, during which time each created being is coming to resemble the image of God. According to the Divine Principle, this growing period is divided into three ordered stages of growth: the formation stage, the growth stage, and the completion stage (DP, 42).

The human ancestors fell at the top of their growth stage (DP, 43). Consequently, they inherited only “two-thirds” of their originally intended creativity. No matter how much scientists may display of their gifted creativity, it still falls far short of the degree God originally intended to bestow on human beings.

Among all created beings, only human beings fell. All things have grown to perfect themselves without falling, and thus they resemble the attributes of God at their own given levels. Here, the following question arises: Why did human beings, who are the lords of creation, fall? The fall occurred because, while all things are created to grow requiring only the autonomy and dominion of the Principle, human beings were given their own portion of responsibility for their growth, in addition to the autonomy and dominion of the Principle.

2.3.4. Creativity and the Portion of Responsibility

The autonomy of the Principle refers to the life force of an organism, and dominion refers to the influence of the life force over an organism’s environment. For example, a tree grows in accordance with the life force within it, and dominion refers to the influence of the life force of the tree over the environment. During the growth of human beings, the autonomy and dominion of the Principle also operate. However, in human beings, only the physical self grows in accordance with this autonomy and dominion; the spirit self does not. The growth of the spirit self requires a different condition: fulfillment of the human portion of responsibility.

It should be noted here that growth of the spirit self does not mean the growth in its height. Since the spirit self is united with the physical self, it naturally grows in size along with the physical self. However, the growth of the spirit self-referred to here is the maturation of its spirituality: the improvement of one’s character, or of one’s heart. In other words, the growth of the spirit self is the growth of the mind in such a way that we are able to practice God’s love. The growth of the spirit self can be achieved only through the fulfillment of one’s human portion of responsibility. This fulfillment of the human portion of responsibility refers to the continuous practice of love, all the while holding fast to one’s faith in God and firmly observing His commandments. In this way we can overcome the numerous trials that may come to us, through our own decisions and without any help from others.

It was not an easy matter for Adam and Eve to fulfill such a portion of responsibility, since God was unable to intervene, and they had no parents to teach them. Nevertheless, they were expected to fulfill such a responsibility.

However, tempted by Satan, Adam and Eve failed to fulfill their portion of responsibility, and fell. Why did God give Adam and Eve such a heavy responsibility, one that they might fail to fulfill? Why could God not enable them to grow easily, like all other things? The reason is because God wanted to give human beings the qualification to have dominion over all things, and to make them the lords of creation (Gen. 1:28,DP, 78).

Dominion is, in principle, only the dominion over one’s possessions or things that one has created, and one is not allowed to exercise one’s dominion over the possessions of others or over things created by others. Since human beings were created after all things had been created, logically they can not be the possessors or creators of all things. Yet, since God created human beings as His children, He intended to endow them with the qualifications of being a creator, so as to make them the lords of creation. Hence, He intended to have human beings fulfill a certain extra condition; thereby, human beings would be recognized as having participated in God’s creation of the universe.

2.3.5. Human Perfection and One’s Portion of Responsibility

The extra condition required of Adam and Eve was to be responsible for their own perfection. That is, if Adam and Eve had perfected themselves without any help from others, God would have regarded them as having qualifications equal to His as the creator of the universe. As a matter of fact, the value of a person is the same as the value of the whole universe, as described in the Divine Principle: Every human being is an embodiment (or encapsulation) of all elements in the cosmos (DP, 30, 47), and a micro-cosm (DP, 47), and only when human beings have perfected themselves will the creation of the entire universe also be perfected. Along the same lines, Jesus said, “For what will it profit a man, if he gains the whole world and forfeits his life? Or what shall a man give in return for his life?” (Matt. 16:26) Thus, when Adam and Eve had perfected themselves, they would have been regarded as equal in position to the creator of the universe.

Creation will be carried out as the responsibility of the creator. Hence, God created the universe as His own responsibility; and Adam and Eve, who were to inherit creatorship, should have perfected themselves through their own responsibility. That is why God gave Adam and Eve their portion of responsibility.

Yet, God is a God of love, and He did not want to assign Adam and Eve one hundred percent responsibility; rather, He retained most of the responsibility for their growth, and only gave them a very small portion ― five percent figuratively speaking. God then intended, after their fulfilling their own five percent portion of responsibility, to regard them as having fulfilled the entire one hundred percent. In spite of such a great blessing from God, Adam and Eve failed to fulfill even their own small portion of responsibility, and fell. Thus, they became unable to fully inherit God’s creativity.

If human beings had not fallen, what would have become of them? If they had perfected themselves without falling, first, they would have inherited God’s Heart, the emotional impulse to seek joy through love, and they would have become loving persons just as God is a God of love, and second they would have inherited completely God’s creativity centered on Heart.

This means that, from now on, all the activities of dominion over all things should become based on Heart and love. As already mentioned, politics, economy, industry, science, religion, and so on, all belong to the dominion over all things since they deal with material things, and activities in all these areas will become a dominion of love through creativity (perfect creativity) inherited from God.

2.3.6. Original Creativity and Cultural Activity

Culture is the totality of the achievements of the intellectual, emotional, and volitional activities of human beings. Since intellectual, emotional, and volitional activities commonly deal with material things, cultural activity can be regarded as the activity of dominion over all things with creativity.

Today, the quality of cultures around the world is rapidly declining. In virtually every field, including politics, economy, society, science, art, education, media, ethics, morality, religion, and so on, there are whirlpools of confusion wherein people lack a true sense of direction. Unless some epoch-making proposal is introduced, salvaging the vanishing culture will become an almost hopeless task.

The Communist dictatorial system, which had solidified its formidable foundation with the iron curtain, began to collapse through the open door policy and, today, Communist countries are hastening to introduce the capitalist economic method. Seeing this trend, people in the capitalist camp may be tempted to become proud of the supremacy of the capitalist economic system, and of their scientific technology. This is, however, a shortsighted illusion. They are ignoring the chronic ills of capitalism that will surely lead to its decline and fall: labor disputes arising from structural contradictions within the capitalist economy, the increasing gap between the rich and the poor, degradation of values, rampant social crime, the advancement of criminal techniques accompanying the advancement of science and technology, increasing pollution accompanying industrial development, and so on.

Seen from the viewpoint of dominion over all things, we must seek to find the root cause of today’s cultural crisis at the very beginning of human history. Due to the fall of the first human ancestors, human beings inherited not God’s Heart, love, and creativity, but self-centeredness and egotism which have now spread worldwide. This is the fundamental cause of today’s cultural crisis. The only way to save contemporary culture from such a crisis is to eradicate egotism, and instead, advance all human activities of creation and dominion centering on God’s love. In other words, when all the leaders in various fields and at various levels begin to work centering on God’s love, the complex and difficult problems in the various cultural fields such as politics, economy, society, education, science, religion, philosophy, media and so on, will finally come to be solved fundamentally and totally, thereby allowing a new and true culture of peace to blossom worldwide. Such a new culture will be neither Communist nor capitalist. It will be the culture of Heart, the culture of love, and the culture of harmony. This, I hope, clarifies that the theory of God’s creativity can become a standard for solving actual problems. This concludes my explanation of the content of the Original Image. Let me now turn attention to its structure.